However, Chaumette was a staunch opponent of the Girondins, and had characterised Gouges as unnatural and unrepublican prior to her execution. 2007 French presidential contender Ségolène Royal expressed the wish that Gouges' remains be moved to the Panthéon. It was there that the commissioners found an unfinished play titled La France Sauvée ou le Tyran Détroné ("France Preserved, or The Tyrant Dethroned"). Under the specious mask of republicanism, her enemies have brought me remorselessly to the scaffold.". Biografie: Olympe de Gouges, eigentlich Marie Gouze, war eine Revolutionärin, Frauenrechtlerin, Schriftstellerin und Autorin von Theaterstücken im Zeitalter der Aufklärung. Olympe de Gouges, psewdonimu ta' Marie Gouze, (Montauban, 7 ta' Mejju 1748 – Pariġi, 3 ta' Novembru 1793), kienet drammaturga Franċiża li għexet matul ir-Rivoluzzjoni Franċiża.Il-kitba femminista u abolizzjonista tagħha kellha influwenza kbira. Olympe de Gouges schreibt: „Selbstbewusst und selbstlos wie dieser nämliche Mercier wurde ich umso umtriebiger.“ Mercier soll recht behalten. She became an outspoken advocate against the slave trade in the French colonies in 1788. But in revolutionary France there were only citoyen. Sie muss sich ständig gegen Verleumdungen wehren und erlebt, wie ihre Stücke und Beiträge abgelehnt werden – und andere sich ihre Ideen zu eigen machen. Her 1788 pamphlet Reflections on blacks and the play l'Esclavage des Noirs on the slave trade made her, alongside Marquis de Condorcet, one of France's earliest public opponents of slavery.  She came to the public's attention with the play l'Esclavage des Noirs, which was staged at the famous Comédie-Française in 1785. She continued to publish political essays between 1788 and 1791. She attempted to unmask the villains through the literary productions which she had printed and put up. Why Famous: Beginning her career as a playwright in pre-revolutionary France, Gouges became politically active after the outbreak of revolution in 1789.  In the final act of l'Esclavage des Noirs Gouges lets the French colonial master, not the slave, utter a prayer for freedom: "Let our common rejoicings be a happy portent of liberty". Schreiben im Sinne der Aufklärung Olympe de Gouges nahm sie als Künstlernamen an. This earned her the ire of many hard-line republicans, even into the next generation—such as the 19th-century historian Jules Michelet, a fierce apologist for the Revolution, who wrote, "She allowed herself to act and write about more than one affair that her weak head did not understand. On 2 June 1793, the Jacobins of the Montagnard faction arrested prominent Girondins, imprisoned them, and sent them to the guillotine in October. She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) for attacking the regime of the Revolutionary government and for her association with the Girondists. I was sacrificed for no reason that could make up for the repugnance I felt for this man. One of the slave protagonist explains that the French must gain their own freedom, before they can deal with slavery.  For Gouges there was a direct link between the autocratic monarchy in France and the institution of slavery, she argued that "Men everywhere are equal… Kings who are just do not want slaves; they know that they have submissive subjects". ", Her execution was used as a warning to other politically active women. Born Marie Gouze she first adopted the name Olympe de Gouges for her early plays. Marie-Olympe de Gouges was born Marie Gouzes in Montauban, in southern France, on December 31, 1748. Olympe de Gouges, ursprungligen Marie Gouze, född 7 maj 1748 i Montauban, död genom avrättning 3 november 1793, var en fransk revolutionär. She also was associated with Masonic Lodges, among them the Loge des Neuf Sœurs that was created by her friend Michel de Cubières. , Gouges opposed the execution of Louis XVI of France (which took place on 21 January 1793), partly out of opposition to capital punishment and partly because she favored constitutional monarchy. ", This was followed by her Contrat Social ("Social Contract," named after a famous work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), proposing marriage based upon gender equality. , In November 1788 she published her first political brochure, a manifesto entitled Letter to the people, or project for a patriotic fund. Leta 1791 je izdala eno njenih najodmevnejših del Deklaracijo o pravicah ženske in državljanke, v kateri je opozarjala na spolno neenakost v francoski družbi. Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) hieß eigentlich Marie Gouze. In other writings she attacked slavery and the death penalty, and argued in favour of divorce. Gouges also openly attacked the notion that human rights were a reality in revolutionary France. Wikipedia: Olympe de Gouges in der freien Enzyklopädie, Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf geboren.am ›, Tod mit 45 Jahren am 3. Olympe de Gouges wurde in Montauban in Frankreich geboren und verstarb in Paris (auf dem Revolutionsplatz, heute Place de la Concorde) . Sie ist die Verfasserin der Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin von 1791. Olympe de Gouges tritt in ihrer Frauenrechtserklärung der männlichen Verengung des Gleichheitsbegriffs systematisch entgegen. Like other pamphlet writers in revolutionary France, she spoke from the margins and spoke of her experience as a citizen, with a desire to influence the ongoing public debate. Her body was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery. , Her son Pierre Aubry was suspended from his office as vice-general and head of battalion after her arrest. Gouges said in a semi-autobiographical novel (Mémoire de Madame de Valmont contre la famille de Flaucourt), "I was married to a man I did not love and who was neither rich nor well-born. Olympe de Gouges (eigentlich Marie Gouze; * 7. If you were less well informed, Madame, I might fear that your individual interests would outweigh those of your sex. ", Public letters, or pamphlets, were the primary means for the working class and women writers to engage in the public debate of revolutionary France. They never forgave her, and she paid for her carelessness with her head. Then she took the side of the Girondins and … Sie war eine der jüngeren Töchter des kleinbürgerlichen Ehepaares Anne-Olympe und Pierre Gouze, ihr leiblicher Vater war jedoch vermutlich Jean-Jacques Le Franc de Pompignan. " Revolutionary novels were published that put women at the centre of violent struggle, such as the narratives written by Helen Maria Williams and Leonora Sansay. The same year she wrote a series of pamphlets on a range of social concerns, such as illegitimate children. In 1791, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, she wrote the Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne ("Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen"). But the play closed after three performances; the lobby had paid hecklers to sabotage the performances..  1793 marked the start of the Reign of Terror in post-revolutionary France, where thousands of people were executed. A Biography of Olympe de Gouges. Mit dieser Erklärung hinterließ Olympe de Gouges ein Dokument, das den Versuch einer geistigen Revolution innerhalb des revolutionären Prozesses bezeugt. Ve své Deklaraci práv ženy a občanky kritizovala nadvládu mužů a nerovnost pohlaví. A number of her plays were published and some are extant. , Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen had been widely reproduced and influenced the writings of women's advocates in the Atlantic world. Furthermore active citizenship was two-tiered, with those who could vote and those who were fit for public office. Olympe de Gouges is considered as one of the first feminists. This posthumous characterisation of Gouges by the political establishment was misleading, as Gouges had no role in founding the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women. Across the Atlantic world observers of the French Revolution were shocked, but the ideals of liberté, égalité, fraternité had taken a life of their own. In that pamphlet she expressed, for the first time, her famous statement: "A woman has the right to mount the scaffold. Media in category "Olympe de Gouges" The following 33 files are in this category, out of 33 total. Republicans discussed civic virtue in terms of patriotic manliness (la vertu mâle et répub-licaine). Finally, her poster Les trois urnes, ou le salut de la Patrie, par un voyageur aérien ("The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller") of 1793, led to her arrest. De Gouges' Sterbeort … At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. The square was inaugurated by the mayor of the 3rd arrondissement, Pierre Aidenbaum, along with then first deputy mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo. Olympe de Gouges selbst gibt 1793 ihr Alter mit 38 Jahren an. November in Paris (auf dem Revolutionsplatz, heute Place de la Concorde) in. Juli 1793 wurde auf der Brücke Saint-Michel in Paris Olympe de Gouges verhaftet, als sie zusammen mit dem Buchhändler-Verleger Costard und dem Plakatierer Trottier ein Plakat anbringen wollte mit dem Titel: „Les trois urnes ou le salut de la patrie, par un voyager aérien“. She was declared the daughter of Pierre Gouze, bourgeois of Montauban, master butcher - he did not sign at the baptism because he was absent - and of Anne Olympe Mouisset, daughter of a lawyer from a family of merchants, married in 1737 The latter, born in 1712, was the goddaughter of the Marquis Jean-Jacques Lefranc de Pompignan (Anne's father had been Jean-Jacques' tutor), born in 1709, with whom she would have maintained a romantic relationship.  In December 1792, when Louis XVI was about to be put on trial, she wrote to the National Assembly offering to defend him, causing outrage among many deputies.  The same year Gouges was executed the pamphlet On the Marriage of Two Celebrated Widows was published anonymously, proclaiming that "two celebrated widows, ladies of America and France, after having repudiated their husbands on account of their ill treatment, conceived of the design of living together in the strictest union and friendship. She was an advocate for abolishing slaves in the colonies, but is best known for her work as an early feminist writer. The French Constitution marked the birth of the short-lived constitutional monarchy and implemented a status based citizenship. The intention was not to court the favour of the addressee, often a public figure. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. A record of her papers which were seized in 1793, at the time of her execution, lists about 40 plays.  Gouges attended the artistic and philosophical salons of Paris, where she met many writers, including La Harpe, Mercier, and Chamfort, as well as future politicians such as Brissot and Condorcet. , Gouges wrote her famous Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen shortly after the French Constitution of 1791 was ratified by King Louis XVI, and dedicated it to his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. The experience of French women during the revolution entered the collective consciousness. Britannica Explores. ", French Wikisource has original text related to this article: Olympe de Gouges, Significant civil and political events by year, The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller, France Preserved, or The Tyrant Dethroned, Olympe de Gouges at the Revolutionary tribunal, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman, 1989 p. 235, Chronicle of the French Revolution, Longman 1989 p. 311, Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Society of Revolutionary Republican Women, Women's Petition to the National Assembly, "I Foresaw it All: The Amazing Life and Oeuvre of Olympe de Gouges", Olympe de Gouges, a Daughter of Quercy on her Way to the Panthéon, "Olympe de Gouges's trial and the affective politics of denaturalization in France", A website containing English translations of de Gouges' works, An extensive article about Olympe de Gouges, An excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Olympe_de_Gouges&oldid=989347872, French people executed by guillotine during the French Revolution, 18th-century French dramatists and playwrights, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 13:44. She believed that she was the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Lefranc, Marquis de Pompignan. That year a number of women with a public role in politics were executed, including Madame Roland and Marie-Antoinette.  On 2 November 1793 she wrote to him: "I die, my dear son, a victim of my idolatry for the fatherland and for the people. As a woman from the province and of lowly birth she fashioned herself to fit in with the Paris establishment. Ihre politischen Überlegungen sind von den sich überstürzenden Veränderungen der frühen Französischen Revolution geprägt, erweisen sich jedoch über den historischen Kontext hinausgehend von Bedeutung. Sie kann als eine der ersten Frauenrechtlerinnen bezeichnet werden. Sie ist die Verfasserin der Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin von 1791. While it was common in France to equate political oppression to slavery, this was an analogy and not an abolitionist sentiment. In transferring sovereignty to the nation the constitution dismantled the old regime, but Gouges argued that it did not go far enough. September 1791 An die Königin Die Rechte der Frau Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin – Präambel – Artikel 1 bis 17 – Postambel Muster eines Gesellschaftsvertrages von Mann und Frau Anekdote Postskriptum She was possibly the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Le Franc de Caix (the Marquis de Pompignan), himself a man of letters and a playwright (among whose claims to fame in… Herausgegeben von Gabriela Wachter, Parthas, Berlin 2006, Mousset, Sophie: Women’s Rights and the French Revolution.  Through her friends, she managed to publish two texts: Olympe de Gouges au tribunal révolutionnaire ("Olympe de Gouges at the Revolutionary tribunal"), in which she related her interrogations; and her last work, Une patriote persécutée ("A [female] patriot persecuted"), in which she condemned the Terror. The slave protagonist comments on the situation in France "The power of one Master alone is in the hands of a thousand Tyrants who trample the People under foot. It is commonly believed that she was born and raised in a modest family, the daughter of Pierre Gouze, a butcher, and Anne Olympe Moisset, a maidservant. Ihr Geburtsort ist Montauban nahe Toulose in Südfrankreich. She expresses faith in the Estates General and in reference to the estates of the realm, that the people of France (Third Estate) would be able to ensure harmony between the three estates, that is clergy, nobility and the people. Olympe de Gouges - VorkÃ¤mpferin fÃ¼r Frauenrechte â€“ FranzÃ¶sischen Revolution -Autorin â€“ TheaterstÃ¼cke - 1748 geboren, â€žErklÃ¤rung der Rechte der Frau und der BÃ¼rgerinâ€œ (1791 -vom Revolutionstribunal am 3. In the same year Gouges penned Letter to Citizen Robespierre, which Robespierre refused to answer. 1783-1793 Theaterstücke, Romane und politische Schriften, die die politische Umsetzung der Aufklärung veranschaulichen. In her defence of Louis XVI de Gouges expresses her customary fair-mindedness, in her understanding of the Convention's Parisian bias, her … Clémence Bodoc, web rédactrice chez madmoizelle.com , nous décrit la « zone grise », moment où les interprétations diverses demandent l’avis de l’autre, du vis-à-vis, pour ne pas commettre une agression. Browse 56 olympe de gouges stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images.  Her mother afforded her a bourgeois education. However, her remains—like those of the other victims of the Reign of Terror—have been lost through burial in communal graves, so any reburial (like that of Marquis de Condorcet) would be only ceremonial.  Hon var politisk aktivist, feminist, författare och dramatiker.Hon är författaren till Deklarationen om kvinnans och medborgarinnans rättigheter (1791). As a playwright she charged into the contemporary political controversies and she was often in the vanguard. Olympe de Gouges wrote her famous " Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen " shortly after the French constitution of 1791 was created in the same year. In the public letter Remarques Patriotique from December 1788 Gouges justified why she is publishing her political thoughts, arguing that "This dream, strange though it may seem, will show the nation a truly civic heart, a spirit that is always concerned with the public good". Women were by definition not afforded any rights of active citizenship. Olympe de Gouges - Lettre a Monseigneur le duc d'Orleans premier prince du sang, 1789.djvu 2,528 × 3,812, 8 pages; 434 KB  Olympe was executed only a month after Condorcet had been proscribed, and just three days after the Girondin leaders had been guillotined. Like men who could not pay the poll tax, children, domestic servants, rural day-laborers and slaves, Jews, actors and hangmen, women had no political rights. She never married again, calling the institution of marriage "the tomb of trust and love". Montauban – Frankreich. She is honoured in many street names across France, in the Salle Olympe de Gouges exhibition hall in rue Merlin, Paris, and the Parc Olympe de Gouges in Annemasse. The influential Abraham-Joseph Bénard remarked "Mme de Gouges is one of those women to whom one feels like giving razor blades as a present, who through their pretensions lose the charming qualities of their sex... Every woman author is in a false position, regardless of her talent". The People will one day burst their chains and will claim all its rights under Natural law. Citizens were defined as men over 25, were "independent" and had paid the poll tax. , Gouges was associated with the Gironde faction, who were targeted by the more radical Montagnard faction. However, it was rumored that de Gouges's mother, who reportedly was a beautiful women … In these pamphlets she advanced the public debate on issues that would later be picked up by feminists, such as Flora Tristan. Gouges took to the street, and on behalf of the French people proclaimed "Let us plunge into the Seine! In Paris Gouges was accused by the mayor of Paris of having incited the insurrection in Saint-Domingue with the play. , After her arrest, the commissioners searched her house for evidence. Gouges opposes absolutism, but believed France should retain a constitutional monarchy.. Olympe de Gouges, rojena Marie Gouze, francoska dramatičarka in aktivistka, * 7. maj 1748, Montauban, Francija, † 3. november 1793, Pariz.. Bila je ena izmed prvih bork za pravice žensk in njihovo enakopravnost v družbi. The problem was that law of the revolution made it a capital offense for anyone to publish a book or pamphlet that encouraged reestablishing the monarchy.  It seems as though the judge based this argument on Gouges' tendency to represent herself in her writings.